The Facts: When I was three, my parents adopted a baby and named her Mary. My mother died seven years later and my father remarried. My father and his second wife had two children together. My father recently died without a Will. My half-siblings insist that since Mary is not my father’s biological child, she is not entitled to a share of his estate.
Question: Are they correct?
The Answer: Fortunately for Mary, your half-siblings are wrong.
How it Works: If your father legally adopted Mary, she has the same right to a share of your father’s estate as you and your father’s other biological children. The law in New York is quite clear on that point. Section 7(c) of the New York intestacy statute governs how an estate is distributed when someone dies without a Will. It states that “the right of an adopted child to take a distributive share…continue[s] as provided in the domestic relations law.” Domestic Relations Law Section 117 explicitly states that “[t]he adoptive parents or parent and the adoptive child shall sustain toward each other the legal relation of parent and child and shall have all the rights and be subject to all the duties of that relation including the rights of inheritance from and through each other….”
In other words, the relationship between Mary and your father is legally the same as the relationship between you and your father and the relationship between your half-siblings and your father. As such, she is entitled to the same percentage of his estate as any of his biological children. In addition, if Mary had predeceased your father and had children of her own, her children would be entitled to share the inheritance that would have otherwise passed to Mary.
It is worth noting that Domestic Relations Law Section 117 not only sets forth the rights of the adoptive child but, also the rights of the adoptive parent. If Mary had predeceased your father without a spouse or children of her own, your father, as her adoptive parent, would be entitled to her entire estate.
If you are going to be petitioning the surrogate’s court for letters of administration so you can handle your father’s estate, you should consult with an experienced estate attorney to insure that the administration process is handled properly and proceeds smoothly despite the position taken by your half-siblings.
Linda M. Toga, Esq. provides legal services in the areas of estate planning, real estate, small business services and litigation from her East Setauket office.